NPS, as well as other drugs and medicines, may be described as being “controlled” or “not controlled” by law. To “control” psychoactive substances, an international drug control system exists. This systems contains three international conventions (agreements) set up by the United Nations in 1961, 1971, and 1988.
To NPS, only the conventions of 1961 and 1971 apply. In these agreements, substances are ranked according to their risk for abuse and therapeutic or medical value. Substances on Schedule I, such as MDMA or LSD, are considered most dangerous, and are most strictly controlled. The international drug control agreements do not, however, require any country in the UN to treat the consumption of drugs as a punishable act (as opposed to possession of drugs).
National and international
NPS will not immediately be under national or international control. NPS are often newly developed chemical compounds which are therefore not yet known and listed in drug schedules. So at first instance, the substance will be allowed to be produced, sold and bought. When an NPS is discovered by law enforcement and/or laboratories, and reported to national or European ‘early warning systems’ for new drugs, it will be monitored how much (health) harms a substance causes in society. When the (possible) damage has been evaluated, it may be decided to control a new substance. It will then be added to a (national or international) scheduling list for ‘illegal drugs’. Production, trafficking, trade, and possession of the substance are thereby made strictly controlled (or punishable) acts.
World Health Organisation
Through the website of the World Health Organisation, the lists with all substances under international control can be found. The WHO evaluates the risks of psychoactive substances, and then gives advice on which should be put under international control (and under which schedule). Individual countries can also place substances or entire chemical substance groups under control through national drug laws, even when these substances are not (yet) under international control.
A very clear explanation of the legal definition of NPS and the difference between controlled versus uncontrolled substances (nationally and internationally) is given in this short clip by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction.
National law for drugs in Cyprus
In Cyprus, drugs are classified in categories A, B, and C according to the damage they cause, with the most dangerous being classified at category A. Possession for personal use is a serious offense, with sentences of imprisonment up to 12 years for category A drugs, 8 years for category B drugs, and 4 years for category C drugs.
In 2003, certain limits have been placed to determine possession of how much quantity would be for personal use. These limits are 3 plants of cannabis, 30 grams of cannabis or its byproducts, and 10 grams of packed cocaine or opium and their byproducts. Possession of higher quantity of these drugs leads to the speculation that the person possessed the drug with the intention to sell. Trading drugs of categories A and B can lead to lifelong imprisonment, while trading drugs of category C can lead to imprisonment up to 8 years.
In February 2011, the Drug Law Enforcement Unit (D.L.E.U), the British Basis Police, and the Ministry of Health signed a protocol, so as young drug offenders are mandated to therapy at the Mental Health Services of Cyprus. The protocol aims to provide an alternative solution (referral to a therapeutic program), instead of sentencing young offenders, who are arrested for the first time. Young offenders are neither prosecuted, nor tried, if they successfully complete such programs.
In addition, the law attempts to implement alternative sentences to imprisonment. After arrest and before trial, young offenders, who are arrested for the first time have a different solution.
In 2011, Cyprus started implementing a generic approach to control the New Psychotropic Substances.
For the law about drugs and narcotics in Cyprus, visit this site (Greek only).